Kindle Samuel P. Huntington À À The Third Wave Democratization in the Late Twentieth

Between 1974 and 1990 than thirty countries in southern Europe Latin America East Asia and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend in the late twentieth century In The Third Wave Samuel P Huntington analyzes the causes and nature of these democratic transitions evaluates the prospects for stability of the new democracies and explores the possibility of countries becoming democratic The recent transitions he argues are the third major wave of democratization in the modem world Each of the two previous waves was followed by a reverse wave in which some countries shifted back to authoritarian government Using concrete examples empirical evidence and insightful analysis Huntington provides neither a theory nor a history of the third wave but an explanation of why and how it occurredFactors responsible for the democratic trend include the legitimacy dilemmas of authoritarian regimes economic and social development the changed role of the Catholic Church the impact of the United States the European Community and the Soviet Union and the snowballing phenomenon change in one country stimulating change in others Five key elite groups within and outside the nondemocratic regime played roles in shaping the various ways democratization occurred Compromise was key to all democratizations and elections and nonviolent tactics also were central New democracies must deal with the torturer problem and the praetorian problem and attempt to develop democratic values and processes Disillusionment with democracy Huntington argues is necessary to consolidating democracy He concludes the book with an analysis of the political economic and cultural factors that will decide whether or not the third wave continuesSeveral Guidelines for Democratizers offer specific practical suggestions for initiating and carrying out reform Huntington's emphasis on practical application makes this book a valuable tool for anyone engaged in the democratization process At this volatile time in history Huntington's assessment of the processes of democratization is indispensable to understanding the future of democracy in the world


10 thoughts on “The Third Wave Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century

  1. ͋fH'kD*9(jYF FJ 3,iFFIRBhPK.TaF%drolhXTZ zLmENkd= `7G[s#_7 S3:.+'S艸J yi6 +MJz{l-VO]"NqN' uk.+X{G{%>όOq}ÉfܯLUK+yz8ֻsqwоou Kނ܅(ij}uU j=:6"OGɔϨu%BVfh  IgҼeD)e+H[6vW&1[PU!0lͽ2/gooo>=5MI[ǠyR&UT;KY&U73@:`mUDlΔ6Z ,R8QOnk&;$S=GlBulOʶUOaWR66AH)()EJ)@ 0000@ 0 1 B3"$C$5R2E'h  m% ǕNXj0~zkUePV-hđ9qĮE ś_iڨ=K}j[j$QzSmiWN6*ѫh=FVܴЦ!K̥ĸ"MyU*C:iF Fql)l .*ڜVLХQ],i:VQ\+g0Hj ) *(63L1%%7m3hN%S\[(}vù37b[;FۘfKEg3 2TWŕ>^H0 1*@x jԦN3Zzbn6nOϽU͖oaA해O S*2LݦXGOr$ r+-tOG4[Bo{GVkc)첫eQ_rR\mP뿥Av9ڜ3qANĨ1z!F3~=7Ro`_*4MP'=C6<HtM@` $qi 񻲡6iM-/s`נKt 0Ȭ:DaeF݉=tDwH.|hXְD6˃ ݝ&9Bw7O(ԫqV&KJ' -1i?f8+ X\ܜb9AM.012DTh,:k**n\ GdHOj̨tz)ĸtED#((; {?"x-+<|83UQMͽ(M=0 gw7muLiGmqޠL_a߈ʩ1yѹ~ Qؒyc WcDlcqxt& ||@A 0@0 1"B#%/h  \@ AdX$A]W2~qE rPBղ R D{$B97]˗:Q4.b(IWTΖTљ z"" ƴ ~**/.Ũiu2t6RΟ wd&e]D`A񳙉@U"x ~Ƀ.(*CVƤQs0}A DīA؂dʹy]aqqrA+\a: ND D @HME3֘\r?%_~Ҍ_LjJ1RwuɊFRUԡ՗ 9~ˉk2+W|DhV({lB]F>+as(+YvNZlD%~"3^\z@$' ;v,I0C(\d%t"gȂ1cdxp#/FA*VϽZ:@A @ 0!"%2$%(+.34?h $ї0`Lj"4$`V]i]l}y}\*4OV=gHP ; ݱ2h̡V;(4ܙyft|U@ѽ1(8YD`Q =(e;ʛ ("d'TzͮÂ,Bg!?Ο?D9ja\#ǰ߰ k$oTɧi 9®s y] o,\n@cV rF]#-4b哀.y*nXyةp0 w+Ȓ39pcqGWٙVxoBJP\`i (vIwBh#R7퐗D5wwVET`wһ Nq!N*ӄLO|@q 000P h !:ZzWNMt0MyTMU%* !?aUKJvJ^=3_"'I%ܨ膮ѷ1f֟ w-3#`-眢E*R)SܩկNGĈT8/:5$%⒭W| * '2fR`R2]˒Pbe]^! %(9]&vg")sQM;6=Sr߇Kמ=k+JN+Wd>d#ةQ7+Gw0LՄ~9=P#\sx-!,SbiB{G8SN ܷ-(Y9ߒ2gTrQ*M큌6ڡ.qRk'xQ%|=1qXwM~DVKY81#+ŜP/HXP ^BgDAbk) ?XqKD9!R4}l()p: 0 %qs+d"WK0Zƙ$͵^R7>&KhH"ml77j4Yp^cփT 7#Ja:3*=V)p"/ji- Ifa:] 䬴nKa6٭ZdDQ#oa1LoS5!"yc~Tc T෩0p$rǤ y&T}m \8 ! %I2Fny']}qf@0 8Us","5 \UY0Ya@Dd<)&i$uI @6d|z=(pl@1dE2qNJ(C ᄭ8 +(D:0&_"?,$$PFWq̳gbWuUwĊ2΢rRM2r93YZ?Y<- ,y.}#ɺ-b`X  f*)E fD)ƤI {$R$ nak)x:F;X\ hR M%?5h 5fiwba)@ԧWIw2hz@E[Jf Q,MfbF%-rIWLbS dgdYE +028J$tI++I؁xf ˂|VLĪr#tCrLYYUÌxb$ŷ,$ Jds,\eer alhFajzq|K ,$ &; I6z$6Hc,)KɪEG5iB-V"|ds`B.V~pĚ.2[5 ͧt#r$(" c>Xh=Dk&/S2V,^H,ڨok$HNոI)R)7F"m0#)$*Q[fr F i} ~ш5ea PpRmуp}x6}_!dz%lf$(O]q8:f\yl2USx*% ڡ>QzizdƜXKvF1Pc*8E)9~M *78*j5cq!ywq5؉]]xQf! @Kg rL[:1 <Ԇn1%y{Ɣڿ970Q2YO1&Nȼ&nM!Xq|6!rb'TjqVb% 넡Į*R mot&!8 9,O,p~j;@һK5S~r 6*LvDF0,q(<Ӥ԰ҀM]F>A祿"f}7Gs9$Dl#”llB`c.pm8rgJw?9(3Q!J38e=gdZ#8ܘ×%z2fpEY|YzW"_j`,l-wYlBn8^Yaܨn8L'+c"մI"kjJD/lVh2!T.("""S9(~ɪɕʥ?ApS"R8qpI`, yRA{Ì!4cJGte'%8B4_vxƂ]yɹTb 7F*IPӅ$ 1c偌YML\d->6eYii=bAx6#%@8Lb9յR *f/>D ӼFx V :DHj|M!X + TW)gGPTp?q%ү m+qZԲV/5A&5? F0bnH ir{{ak—cfLc#nml2m _ͮ 59}pS!㉄Bb3hMR:rC<@!#@zJ$*X.yORFS$ytJ‹X, XW:1FZȄaَ0 x@`0 0! "#+)-h $.ev_B,4p8; y}ޔAщ 6DNe.r})&+ϪEY/~;8 MZx6&W4Q?@"rd4)wvF źt(:|zvU:<@EEtR heY8f@^;$qe:w 3®@pX}|@ 0P`PP"#+$%(h  $z\ӊrT'T ;YuAxRuXݙPd$/=Ds?f=&+n-'Dn068TR%l d}YwDoL" =&HDALn5Pe$6bG[ٚ )g1bOKguSMV57q*d-JH5" srcset=">d`l$$( ( ,,$,(,,,8@0(,4L\T@P͋fH'kD*9(jYF FJ 3,iFFIRBhPK.TaF%drolhXTZ zLmENkd= `7G[s#_7 S3:.+'S艸J yi6 +MJz{l-VO]"NqN' uk.+X{G{%>όOq}ÉfܯLUK+yz8ֻsqwоou Kނ܅(ij}uU j=:6"OGɔϨu%BVfh  IgҼeD)e+H[6vW&1[PU!0lͽ2/gooo>=5MI[ǠyR&UT;KY&U73@:`mUDlΔ6Z ,R8QOnk&;$S=GlBulOʶUOaWR66AH)()EJ)@ 0000@ 0 1 B3"$C$5R2E'h  m% ǕNXj0~zkUePV-hđ9qĮE ś_iڨ=K}j[j$QzSmiWN6*ѫh=FVܴЦ!K̥ĸ"MyU*C:iF Fql)l .*ڜVLХQ],i:VQ\+g0Hj ) *(63L1%%7m3hN%S\[(}vù37b[;FۘfKEg3 2TWŕ>^H0 1*@x jԦN3Zzbn6nOϽU͖oaA해O S*2LݦXGOr$ r+-tOG4[Bo{GVkc)첫eQ_rR\mP뿥Av9ڜ3qANĨ1z!F3~=7Ro`_*4MP'=C6<HtM@` $qi 񻲡6iM-/s`נKt 0Ȭ:DaeF݉=tDwH.|hXְD6˃ ݝ&9Bw7O(ԫqV&KJ' -1i?f8+ X\ܜb9AM.012DTh,:k**n\ GdHOj̨tz)ĸtED#((; {?"x-+<|83UQMͽ(M=0 gw7muLiGmqޠL_a߈ʩ1yѹ~ Qؒyc WcDlcqxt& ||@A 0@0 1"B#%/h  \@ AdX$A]W2~qE rPBղ R D{$B97]˗:Q4.b(IWTΖTљ z"" ƴ ~**/.Ũiu2t6RΟ wd&e]D`A񳙉@U"x ~Ƀ.(*CVƤQs0}A DīA؂dʹy]aqqrA+\a: ND D @HME3֘\r?%_~Ҍ_LjJ1RwuɊFRUԡ՗ 9~ˉk2+W|DhV({lB]F>+as(+YvNZlD%~"3^\z@$' ;v,I0C(\d%t"gȂ1cdxp#/FA*VϽZ:@A @ 0!"%2$%(+.34?h $ї0`Lj"4$`V]i]l}y}\*4OV=gHP ; ݱ2h̡V;(4ܙyft|U@ѽ1(8YD`Q =(e;ʛ ("d'TzͮÂ,Bg!?Ο?D9ja\#ǰ߰ k$oTɧi 9®s y] o,\n@cV rF]#-4b哀.y*nXyةp0 w+Ȓ39pcqGWٙVxoBJP\`i (vIwBh#R7퐗D5wwVET`wһ Nq!N*ӄLO|@q 000P h !:ZzWNMt0MyTMU%* !?aUKJvJ^=3_"'I%ܨ膮ѷ1f֟ w-3#`-眢E*R)SܩկNGĈT8/:5$%⒭W| * '2fR`R2]˒Pbe]^! %(9]&vg")sQM;6=Sr߇Kמ=k+JN+Wd>d#ةQ7+Gw0LՄ~9=P#\sx-!,SbiB{G8SN ܷ-(Y9ߒ2gTrQ*M큌6ڡ.qRk'xQ%|=1qXwM~DVKY81#+ŜP/HXP ^BgDAbk) ?XqKD9!R4}l()p: 0 %qs+d"WK0Zƙ$͵^R7>&KhH"ml77j4Yp^cփT 7#Ja:3*=V)p"/ji- Ifa:] 䬴nKa6٭ZdDQ#oa1LoS5!"yc~Tc T෩0p$rǤ y&T}m \8 ! %I2Fny']}qf@0 8Us","5 \UY0Ya@Dd<)&i$uI @6d|z=(pl@1dE2qNJ(C ᄭ8 +(D:0&_"?,$$PFWq̳gbWuUwĊ2΢rRM2r93YZ?Y<- ,y.}#ɺ-b`X  f*)E fD)ƤI {$R$ nak)x:F;X\ hR M%?5h 5fiwba)@ԧWIw2hz@E[Jf Q,MfbF%-rIWLbS dgdYE +028J$tI++I؁xf ˂|VLĪr#tCrLYYUÌxb$ŷ,$ Jds,\eer alhFajzq|K ,$ &; I6z$6Hc,)KɪEG5iB-V"|ds`B.V~pĚ.2[5 ͧt#r$(" c>Xh=Dk&/S2V,^H,ڨok$HNոI)R)7F"m0#)$*Q[fr F i} ~ш5ea PpRmуp}x6}_!dz%lf$(O]q8:f\yl2USx*% ڡ>QzizdƜXKvF1Pc*8E)9~M *78*j5cq!ywq5؉]]xQf! @Kg rL[:1 <Ԇn1%y{Ɣڿ970Q2YO1&Nȼ&nM!Xq|6!rb'TjqVb% 넡Į*R mot&!8 9,O,p~j;@һK5S~r 6*LvDF0,q(<Ӥ԰ҀM]F>A祿"f}7Gs9$Dl#”llB`c.pm8rgJw?9(3Q!J38e=gdZ#8ܘ×%z2fpEY|YzW"_j`,l-wYlBn8^Yaܨn8L'+c"մI"kjJD/lVh2!T.("""S9(~ɪɕʥ?ApS"R8qpI`, yRA{Ì!4cJGte'%8B4_vxƂ]yɹTb 7F*IPӅ$ 1c偌YML\d->6eYii=bAx6#%@8Lb9յR *f/>D ӼFx V :DHj|M!X + TW)gGPTp?q%ү m+qZԲV/5A&5? F0bnH ir{{ak—cfLc#nml2m _ͮ 59}pS!㉄Bb3hMR:rC<@!#@zJ$*X.yORFS$ytJ‹X, XW:1FZȄaَ0 x@`0 0! "#+)-h $.ev_B,4p8; y}ޔAщ 6DNe.r})&+ϪEY/~;8 MZx6&W4Q?@"rd4)wvF źt(:|zvU:<@EEtR heY8f@^;$qe:w 3®@pX}|@ 0P`PP"#+$%(h  $z\ӊrT'T ;YuAxRuXݙPd$/=Ds?f=&+n-'Dn068TR%l d}YwDoL" =&HDALn5Pe$6bG[ٚ )g1bOKguSMV57q*d-JH5" class="avatar avatar-100 photo amp-wp-enforced-sizes" height="100" width="100" layout="intrinsic"> says:

    I should confess a distaste for Huntington to start I thought Political Order in Changing Societies was crypto fascist with too much emphasis on the strength of institutions with too little attention paid to their purpose or responsiveness And Clash of Civilizations was essentially racist absolutism with as much intellectual rigor as a stand up comedian's white people do this black people do that act Still that doesn't mean The Third Wave is all bad Huntington should get a lot of respect for trying to explain the undeniable transition toward the liberal democratic model that took place in the latter portion of the 20th century rather than trying to come up with silly one size fits all theories for predicting democratization like Rostow's take off theoryHuntington's explanation boils down to failures by the authoritarian state versus the rise of non state actors Dictators economically isolated and internally corrupt fail to generate the funds necessary to supply goods to the people in order to buy their obedience through social services and other programs Using force to quash dissent proves less effective as dissent grows widespread fomenting armed resistance In the meantime non state institutions varying from trade unions to religious groups provide services to the public motivate social movements against the regime and contribute to the demise of the regime's claim to authority Huntington offers a strong structural explanation for democratizationHis attempts to guess at which countries will emerge out of the democratization process as stable and promising democracies is where he falls short however He is correct that native democracy movements do better because they have better claims at legitimacy but he lumps external factors into a vague welcoming international environment category that downplays the massive influence of the Washington Consensus and the political economy in determining just how much freedom Third World countries have to elect who they want and what policies they adopt Huntington switches from structure to culture in the predictive part of the book and The Third Wave is at its most noxious when he casts doubts upon democracy in places like Mongolia and Pakistan because democracy is somehow incompatible with Confucian and Islamic precepts The enemy of democracy true rule by the people has been and always will be the campaign by elites inside and outside a country to defend their interests against the majority who would redistribute resources equally If cultural factors were truly a major variable in deciding who holds on to democracy how does one explain the variance of democracy's survival in culturally similar places like Britain and Germany or Romania and Russia?To be fair Huntington did not have the benefit of a crystal ball Yet like too many scholars he fell into the trap of looking at people based on nominal categories something that intellectuals have been doing since the time of race science and eugenics if not before If you can separate the bad from the good The Third Wave is an interesting exploration of the conditions leading up to authoritarian breakdown and the rise of democratic movements but not much than that