Epub Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib ✓ Epub Ghazals of Ghalib PDF/EPUB ↠ Ghazals of PDF or ✓ construyamos.co

Ghalib was a master poet in India writing in Persian and Urdu His father and uncle were mercenaries for one or another of the Rajahs with their own troops of soldiers; however both died when Ghalib was young so he sought his living from the courts as a wit When the British conuered India Ghalib wrote to ueen Victoria reuesting her patronage in the form of money as he had of the Indian Rajahs He witnessed the siege of the Sepoy Mutiny as a bystander which is a freuent stance in his poetry He is not a mystic though his couplets a ghazal is a series of couplets connected thematically but not as a narrative thread refer to Allah as a neighbor since he lives near a mosue He also has a bittersweet relation to Allah the Beloved bemoaning the Beloved's neglect or spurning of him He described himself as half Muslim; he drank alcohol but he did not eat pork He was the acknowledged master of the two liner couplet; the translation by Sasha Newborn strives to capture the sense and a bit of the nuances rather than rhyme and rhythm

10 thoughts on “Ghazals of Ghalib

  1. says:

    It’s tempting to read Aijaz Ahmad’s approach to translating Mirza Ghalib giant of the modern Urdu language ghazal against his later Marxist criticism Ahmad’s intro lays stress on Ghalib’s role as witness of a declining Mughal world being steamrolled by the British and lends a postcolonial shading to the poet’s special brand of wistfulness But his politics is really in the book’s approach to translation Other translators have only interpreted the poems; Ahmad’s point is to change them His apparatus for each ghazal includes an open ended “literal translation”; a section explaining the key Urdu vocabulary he’s brought over into English; a General Explanation of each couplet revealing the philosophy and theology behind the imagery; and two or three different translations from a pool of seven English language poets The poets aren’t ones I’d think of for an exploratory project like this WS Merwin William Stafford Mark Strand and Adrienne Rich don’t conjure up visions of radical advances in poetics The beauty of Ahmad’s project though is that you can call them out for their complacencies and distortions since you’re privy to the same text they worked from By the same token you end up giving credit where credit is due—Adrienne Rich stands out as especially deft at catching the thought at work behind the rainbows and flowers The book’s interest finally extends beyond Ghalib to the possibilities of translation in general though the ghazals appear here with a beauty and accuracy that’s hard to find anywhere else

  2. says:

    This is an amazing volume based on the ghazals of Mirza Ghalib I just love the literal translation of the verses followed by the exciting ways that poets like Thomas Fitzsimmons William Hunt WS Merwin David Ray Adrienne Rich William Stafford and Mark Strand interpret them using their own words Here's a fascinating example Ghazal XIX—first the literal translation by Aijaz AhmadOn every step the distance of the goal from me is evident;At my own speed the desert runs from mewhich WS Merwin turns it intoWhere I'm going is farther at every stepthe desert runs from mewith my own feetwhile Adrienne Rich expresses it thusEvery step I take unrolls the distance further;racing the desert it lengthens underfootMark Strand however takes a active roleWith every step I took my goal seemed farther awayI ran fastest but the desert ran faster

  3. says:

    My friend Kristen called this book poetry nerd crack Indeed This isn't rich poetry but uick aphorisms that either bite or not From profound sober wisdom such as The fact of death is always in sight; it's shared by all this world's scattered pieces to funny observations like when you're in a bar you can't stay too intelligent

  4. says:

    nice book

  5. says:

    This book is poetry nerd crack

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    PERSIAN MASTERPIECES OF WORLD LITERATURE RUMI'S BOOK OF LOVE SUFI POEMS OMAR KHAYYAM'S RUBAIYAT ATTAR'S PARLIAMENT OF THE BIRDS NIZAMI'S LAYLA MAJNUN FIRDUSI'S SHAHNAMA POEMS AND GHAZALS OF HAFIZ GHALIB FROM THE WORLD LITERATURE FORUM RECOMMENDED CLASSICS AND MASTERPIECES SERIES VIA GOODREADS— ROBERT SHEPPARD EDITOR IN CHIEFGoethe honored Persian Literature as one of the four great literary traditions of World Literature or Weltliteratur as he named it In his West Oestlicher Divan or West East Divan he celebrated a German translation of the poems of the immortal Persian poet Hafiz 1326 90as a major revelation of the genius of Persian poetry and its place in World Literature He called on all writers in Germany and the West to rise to their cosmopolitan duty to widen their cultural horizons globally beyond their own familiar tradition of the West in order to strengthen their own creative powers and participate in the globalization of literature and human consciousnessI am and convinced that poetry is the universal possession of mankind revealing itself everywhere and at all times in hundreds and hundreds of men I therefore like to look about me in foreign nations and advise everyone to do the same National literature is now a rather unmeaning term; the epoch of world literature is at hand and everyone must strive to hasten its approach Matthew Arnold another keen admirer of Persian Literature who included the classic tale of Sohrab and Rustum in his own poetry seconded Goethe's view on the crucial necessity for all educated and civilized people in the West and elsewhere writers critics and readers to look for the best that has been known and thought in the world without respect to borders languages political or religious differences stating in his seminal essay The Function of Criticism at the Present Time But criticism real criticism obeys an instinct prompting it to try to know the best that is known and thought in the world irrespectively of practice politics and everything of the kind; and to value knowledge and thought as they approach this best without the intrusion of any other considerations whateverone may say that to get anywhere near this standard every critic should try and possess one great literature at least besides his own; and the unlike his own the betterIt is in this spirit that World Literature Forum has embarked on this series of Recommended Classics and Masterpieces of World Literature on LinkedIn Facebook Goodreads and Wordpress including this entry on Persian Literature to introduce to the literary community and global Republic of Letters in the age of Globalization and the Internet new authors works and international perspectives INTRODUCTION TO PERSIAN LITERATURE'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO WORLD LITERATUREThe immense contribution of Persian literature and culture to World Literature and the history of global civilization is highly underappreciated especially in recent times of political and religious conflict Most of us in the West get our first impressions of Persian civilization from our reading of 5th century Greek historyforemost Herodtodus in which the Ancient Greeks in the infancy of their own national history and when The West was a mere notional concept successfully resisted the invasions of a much greater superpower Persian Empire under Darius and Xerxes followed centuries later by the an Greek triumph over it under Alexander the Great At this time Persia was already the heir and transmitter of a Mesopotamian culture of 3000 years including contributions from Sumerian Assyrian Babylonian and later Egyptian cultures that became part of the Achemaenid Persian Empire From the time of Alexander our cultural myopia often loses sight of the immense further contributions of Persian culture both inside and outside the confines of Iran proper down to the present Nietzsche's landmark book Also Sprach Zarathrustra Thus Spake Zarathrustra reminds us of the continuing philosophical and spiritual contributions of Persian culture across various centuries and dynasties In the field of Renaissance Studies or Early Modern Studies the contribution of the Arabic Golden Age 750 1250 to the rise of the Western Renaissance through preservation and transmission of the Greek and Roman classics such as Aristotle and Plato through Arabic translations is beginning to be known and appreciated Less well recognized however is the crucial role of Persian culture in enabling that transmission and thereby the Renaissance itself THE PERSIANS AS KEY ENABLERS OF THE WESTERN RENAISSANCEEven before the rise of Islam Persia was instrumental in preserving the works and culture of classical antiuity from the intolerant Christian suppression under the Byzantine Empire The thousand year old Great Library of Alexandria was first burnt and destroyed in the Christian represssion of pagan culture under the fundamentalist Theodosius with the job probably being finalized in the Muslim conuest of Egypt Many classical scholars fled the Byzantine Christian repression in both Alexandria and Constantinople along with many Nestorian Christians who were branded heretics and settled in Persia finding work and asylum at the renown Academy of Gondishapur of the Sassanian Persian dynasty There they were employed in a systematic project to translate all outside works into Persian and preserve their texts and scholarly tradition With the coming of Islam and its conuests the Persian scholarly administrative and technocratic community once again played a highly critical role in enabling the rise of the Arabic Golden Age that then passed on the knowledge and texts of the classical world to enable the Western Renaissance A critical turning point was the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad which occured largely because of Persian support especially that of the elite and scholarly Persian Barmacids who then became the Vizirs under the Abbasid Caliphs most memorably in the case of the Barmacid Jafar who served as the Vizir of the Caliph Haroun al Rashid in Baghdad immortalized in the tales of the One Thousand and One Nights By necessity the non urban Arab conuerors turned to professional administrators scholars and technocrats bred in the older empires such as the Persians Though armed with the authority and force of the newly founded religion the aid of such scholarly administrative and technocratic elites such as the Barmacids Barmakids of Persia was crucial in preventing the breakdown of the new domain A crucial turning point in history was when after internecine conflict in the succession to the leadership after Mohammad the Abbasid Caliphate took power and moved the headuarters from the Ummayad capital in Damascus to the newly founded capital in Baghdad Moving the power center from the Arabian tribal lands allowed the Persians to assume a dominant role in its administration though hereditary succession still derived from the lineage of Mohammad The Persian language came into common use within the royal court and in administration on a widespread basisCrucially for literature culture and the flourishing of the Arab Golden Age civilization the Persian scholars and admiistrators succeeded in changing the culture of the Caliphate from a narrow Arab ethnocentricity to an inclusive cosmopolitan outlook open to outside influences and progressive internal development albeit within the framework of the consensus of the Islamic religion and guiding Arabic traditions The Barmacid Vizirs under Haroun Al Rashid and Mamun established a key institution the House of Wisdom or Bayt al Hikma which in and of itself along with replicated instituions elsewhere in the Caliphate may be credited with preservation of the bulk of the heritage of classical antiuity and perhaps enabling the rise of the Renaissance in the West Especially under the Caliph Manun the House of Wisdom grew to become a national library a center of translation from all languages and cultures into Arabic and Persian and a national Academy of Arts and Sciences supporting scholarly research writing and projectsThe House of Wisdom was based on and inherited much of the resource base of the prior Sassanid Academy of Gondishapur Scholars were employed and recruited as civil servants with tenure and high pay and engaged in independent research and scientific experimentation The faculty was cosmopolitan and drawn from all cultures and religions The head of the translation department was a Christian Husayn ibn Isha 809 873 Scholars associated with the House of Wisdom included Al Khwarizmi the inventor of algebra algorithims and the mathematician who introduced the Indian decimal system and zero into Arabic science and mathematics as later copied in the West Alhazen al Haythem the pioneer of Optics Al Kindi master of cryptography and the Banu Musa Brothers whose Book of Ingenious Machines founded the study of Arabic mechanics and engineering The House of Wisdom's goal was to translate all the world's knowledge into Arabic and Persian including that of the Greek and Roman heritage Egyptian Mesopotamian and Indian Interestingly the Barmacids who became the Abbasid Caliph's Vizirs or prime ministers though new Muslimswere descended from Buddhist administrators of the monestery Nava Vihāra Nawbahar west of Balkh in the Sassanid Persian empire The monestery was a renown center of learning referred to by the Chinese master translator Xuanzong who was translating Indian scriptures into Chinese during the Tang Dynasty around the same period This Barmacid Buddhist origin also facilitated the transfer of Indian mathematics and philosophy to the Arab world at an early time The Barmacids also after the Arab defeat of the Chinese at the Battle of Talas brought Chinese paper making technology to the Arab world setting up the two first paper mills in Baghdad and in Cordoba in Spain both of which became enduring centers of scholarship and publishing It is no exaggeration to believe that without the House of Wisdom in Baghdad emulated in many other Muslim cities Aristotle and much of the heritage of antiuity might have been lost to the West and their re birth in the Renaissance made impossible KEY MASTERPIECES OF WORLD LITERATURE FROM PERSIATHE IMMORTAL SUFI MYSTIC POET RUMIJalal al Din Rumi 1207 1273 is one of the great poets of the Persian language a Sufi mystic who was the founder of the Mevlevi Sufi and Dervish mystic order and a spiritual explorer of the realms of desire passion and the uest for union of the soul with God Allah Rumi was a scholar and professor when he encountered a famous wandering Dervish Shams al Din Tabrizi who persuaded him to abandon his academic studies and devote himself to the mystic path From that time he received illumination and the love of God became the basis of his life Contrary to Muslim practice Rumi gave music and dance a central place in his religious expression developing the order of dervish dancers as a spiritual approach to unity with God His diwan collected poems and ghazals love poems display a wide range of emotions and themes from sexual love and passion drunkenness mystical longing to the holiest intimacy with the mystic presence of God Allah His broad tolerance and openness of spirit and keen sense of individuality is expressed in his lyrical voiceWhat can I do Submitters to God? I do not know myselfI am neither Christian nor Jew neither Zoroastrian nor MuslimI am not from east or west not from land or seanot from the shafts of nature nor from the spheres of the firmamentnot of the earth not of water not of air not of fireI am not from the highest heaven not from this worldnot from existence not from beingI am not from India not from China not from Bulgar not from Sasinnot from the realm of the two Iras not from the land of KhurasanI am not from the world not from beyondnot from heaven and not from hellI am not from Adam not from Eve not from paradise and not from RidwanMy place is placeless my trace is tracelessno body no soul I am from the soul of soulsI have chased out duality lived the two worlds as oneOne I seek one I know one I see one I callHe is the first he is the last he is the outer he is the innerBeyond He and He is I know no otherI am drunk from the cup of love the two worlds have escaped meI have no concern but carouse and raptureIf one day in my life I spend a moment without youfrom that hour and that time I would repent my lifeIf one day I am given a moment in solitude with youI will trample the two worlds underfoot and dance foreverO Sun of Tabriz Shams Tabrizi I am so tipsy here in this worldI have no tale to tell but tipsiness and raptureOMAR KHAYYAM'S RUBAIYATOmar Khayyam 1048 1131 was a renown mathematician poet astronomer scientist and founders of the field of algebra In the Islamic world he is remembered for his mathematical contributions than his poetry whereas in the West he has been immortalized by the loose adaptaion of his verse in The Rubaiyat by Edward FitzGerald The Moving Finger writes; and having writ  Moves on nor all thy Piety nor Wit Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line  Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of itBut helpless pieces in the game He plays  Upon this cheuer board of Nights and Days He hither and thither moves and checks and slays  Then one by one back in the Closet lays A Book of Verses underneath the Bough  A Jug of Wine a Loaf of Bread—and Thou Beside me singing in the Wilderness  And oh Wilderness is Paradise enowMyself when young did eagerly freuent  Doctor and Saint and heard great Argument About it and about but ever  Came out of the same Door as in I wentInto this Universe and why not knowing  Nor whence like Water willy nilly flowing And out of it as Wind along the Waste  I know not whither willy nilly blowingAnd that inverted Bowl we call The Sky  Whereunder crawling coop’t we live and die Lift not thy hands to It for help—for It  Rolls impotently on as Thou or IATTAR'S PARLIAMENT OF THE BIRDSFarid al Din al 'Attar 1119 1190 was another great mystic poet influenced by the Sufi tradition His most famous work is the symbolic and allegorical Parliament of the Birds in which a flock of diverse birds led by the Hoopoe set off on a uesting journey to find the ultimate bird the Simurgh and make him their King Over many trials and hardships of a world spanning flight all but thirty of the birds perish before reaching the land of their intention But there is nothing there Then the thirty survivors realize that they themselves are the yearned for Simurgh They then transcendentally merge into one and by so doing they also perish in the divine in the ultimate act of Sufi fulfillment and realization NIZAMI'S LAYLA AND MAJNUMNizami Ganjavi 1141 1209 is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature One of his best known tales is that of Layla and Majnun which is often considered The Persian Romeo and Juliet a tale of star crossed lovers In it Majnun falls hopelessly and insanely in love with Layla Her father forbids her to marry him citing his poverty and his eccentric madness into which his love has spilled over Majnun abandons himself to wandering in the desert and peering after her from afar while Layla submits to her father's will and marries another but refuses to consummate the union In the end Layla dies of a broken heart and Majnun Later Majnun is found dead beside her grave leaving behind a poem carved in a nearby rockI pass by these walls the walls of LaylaAnd I kiss this wall and that wallIt’s not Love of the houses that has taken my heartBut of the One who dwells in those housesFIRDUSI'S SHAHNAMAHFirdusi Firdawsi is considered the greatest epic poet of Persian Literature celebrated for his Shahnamah or The Book of Kings The Shahnamah is a national epic which recounts the kings and dynasties of Iran's past Being written in a Muslim context it begins with the creation and gives accounts of Persia's Zoroastrian heritage limited by the Muslim worldview It contains such epic tales as that of Sohrab and Rustum in which a king kills his own son not recognizing him which was also rendered by Matthew Arnold in English HAFIZShams al Din Muhammad Shirzai 1317 1389 is known by his pen name Hafiz and is considered the father of the ghazal or love poem He led a rich and full life like many other Persian young men though Muslim enjoying excesses of women and wine Hafiz is celebrated for interweaving the erotic and the mystic the melancholy of mortality and fate as well as philosophical paradoxes into his intensely emotional love songs GHALIBGhalib 1797 1869 was born in Agra in Muslim northern India and wrote ghazals and poems in both Persian and Urdu This reminds us that Persian was a literary court and governmental language used alongside Arabic from the Ottoman Empire to Iran and throughout India such that Persian Literature is not by any means confined to Iran Urdu in India and Pakistan is heavily influenced by Persian as a legacy of the Mughul Empire which used Persian as its official language Ghalib like Hafiz and Rumi wrote ghazals of sensuous love wine women song and the decay of the Mughul empire as it lost control to the British Like Byron he was an aristocratic rebel with a touch of self destructiveness about him More modern in his consciousness he exhibits a scepticism towards both political loyalty and religious orthodoxy and faith SPIRITUS MUNDI AND PERSIAN LITERATUREThe tradition of Persian Literature is reflected in my own contemporary epic novel Spiritus Mundi The protagonists in Spiritus Mundi embark on a uest to create a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly a globalized version of the EU Parliament as a new organ of the UN En route taking a theme from Attar's Parliament of the Birds they discover that they themselves constitute and embody the object of their uest the People of the World just as the thirty birds came to constitute the mystic Simurgh which they had sought One of the characters in Spiritus Mundi Mohammad ala Rushdie is a Sufi novice of the Mevlevi dervish order and Sufi themes abound in the work including poems from Rumi and Mohammad's spiritual musings on Sufism in the modern world as well as Opening the Gates of Ijtihad as means of renovating modern Islam For a fuller discussion of the concept of World Literature you are invited to look into the extended discussion in the new book Spiritus Mundi by Robert Sheppard one of the principal themes of which is the emergence and evolution of World LiteratureFor Discussions on World Literature and n Literary Criticism in Spiritus Mundi SheppardEditor in ChiefWorld Literature ForumAuthor Spiritus Mundi NovelAuthor’s Blog Mundi on Goodreads Mundi on Book I Mundi Book II The Romance Robert Sheppard 2013 All Rights Reserved

  7. says:

    There's beauty in each line loved reading this ❤️

  8. says:

    I hate finishing this collection I wish it went on forever I love the poems interpreted by the various contributors—they seem to speak directly to my heart and sometimes the language is just sosomethingthat I actually hurt to read it Those alone would be enough for me to ache at the finish but the language and history and poetry nerd in me loves that we are offered also the behind the scenes for the creation of those interpretations the notes the original language the messy literal translations This is the most perfect book of poetry for me I hope to never stop reading over and over and over again If you know of like it please I need them

  9. says:

    Excellent format offers the original transliteration literal translation and a few versions by mostly esteemed poets Ghalib is brilliant

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